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Crawford, G. Christopher

Assistant Professor of Strategy and Entrepreneurship

Copeland 409D
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University of Louisville, PhD, Entrepreneurship 2013

Miami University, MBA, Marketing 2002

University of Toledo, BBA, International Business Management 1992

Research Interests

The Emergence of Outliers, Entrepreneurship, New Venture Creation & Extreme Growth, Entrepreneurial Leadership, Strategic Management, Organization Theory, Philosophy of Science, Agent-Based Modeling, and Nonlinear Research Methods.

Teaching Interests

Entrepreneurial Leadership (download syllabus)

Business Strategy (download syllabus)

Selected Publications

Peer Reviewed Papers and Awards

Crawford, GC. (2017) Modeling the Emergence of Outliers in Entrepreneurship. #1734567 
Awarded: National Science Foundation, Science of Organizations Grant: $205,000.

Messersmith, J, Patel, PC, & Crawford, GC. (Forthcoming) Bang for the Buck: Understanding Benefit Allocations and New Venture Survival. International Small Business Journal. 

Crawford, GC & McKelvey, B. (Forthcoming, 2017) Using Maximum-Likelihood Estimation Methods and Complexity Science Concepts to Research Power Law-Distributed Phenomena in Edward Elgar Handbook of Research Methods in Complexity Science. E. Midelton-Kelly & A. Paraskevas (Eds.). ISBN 978 1 78536 441 9.

Crawford, GC, Dimov, D & McKelvey, B. (2015) Realism, Empiricism, and Fetishism in the Study of Entrepreneurship. Journal of Management Inquiry. Forthcoming. (Link)

Crawford, GC, Aguinis, HA, Lichtenstein, B, Davidsson, P & Lichtenstein, B. (2015) Power Law Distributions in Entrepreneurship: Implications for Theory and Method. Journal of Business Venturing. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2015.01.001.

Crawford, GC & Kreiser, P. (2015) Using Complexity Science to Explain Power Law Distributions in Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy: Extending the Integrative Framework. Small Business Economics. 45(2) 1-21. doi:10.1007/s11187-015-9637-1

Crawford, GC, McKelvey, B., & Lichtenstein, B. (2014) The Empirical Reality of Entrepreneurship: How Power Law Distributed Outcomes Call for New Theory and Method. Journal of Business Venturing Insights. Volume 1, Issue 1, Article 1. doi:10.1016/j.jbvi.2014.09.001

Crawford, GC & Lichtenstein, B. (2013). Is there a Singular ‘Law of Entrepreneurship’? Power Law Dynamics of Organizational Emergence and Growth.  In Leslie A. Toombs (Ed.), Proceedings of the Seventy-Third Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Crawford, GC. (2012) Emerging Scalability and Extreme Outcomes in New Ventures: Power Law Analyses of Three Studies. In Leslie A. Toombs (Ed.), Proceedings of the Seventy-Second Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, ISSN 1543-8643.

Crawford, GC & McKelvey, B. (2012) Strategic Implications Of Power-law Distributions In the Creation and Emergence Of New Ventures: Power-Law Analyses In Three Panel Studies. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Volume 32 (Forthcoming).

Awarded: Kauffman Firm Survey Best Conference Paper and $1,000 Prize.

Crawford, GC. (2012) Disobeying Power-Laws: Perils for Theory and Method. Journal of Organization Design. C. Snow & B. Obel (Eds), Vol. 1, Issue 2, 75-81. 

Emerging Scalability and Extreme Outcomes in the Creation of New Ventures; Best paper proceedings Academy of Management Meeting 2012.

Professional Experience

Corporate Trainer, Marketing Manager: TGI Friday's

Owner: Red Apple Consulting

Director of Marketing: Rexarc International

Visiting Adjunct Professor: Miami University


Kauffman Dissertation Fellowship: $20,000
Based on his dissertation: Causes of Extreme Outcomes in Entrepreneurship: Expectations, Endowments, Engagement, and Environments.

Voted “Best OU Professor” in Athens News’ Best of Athens survey, 2014 (1st Place), 2015 (2nd Place).

Voted a “Faculty Favorite” by students at University of Louisville, 2012


Christopher Crawford an Assistant Professor of Strategic Management at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. He received his Ph.D. in Entrepreneurship from the University of Louisville in 2013. His research interests include: new venture creation and growth; behavioral and corporate strategy; complexity science and agent-based simulation modeling applications to entrepreneurship; and understanding the mechanisms that generate power law distributions and outliers in social systems. His work has been published in Journal of Business Venturing, Small Business Economics, Journal of Management Inquiry, Journal of Organization Design, Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Best Paper Proceedings of the Academy of Management, and Journal of Business Venturing Insights. In a past life, he founded The Red Apple Consulting Company, served as Director of Marketing for Rexarc International, and was a clinical assistant professor of marketing and management at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio for eight years. Christopher is Chair of the professional development workshop "Using Simulation Experiments to Build and Test Entrepreneurship Theories" at the Academy of Management meeting. He co-developed the Kauffman Firm Survey Wiki for scholars who conduct research on young firms. For work on his dissertation, “Causes of Extreme Outcomes in Entrepreneurship”, Dr. Crawford is the recipient of a Kauffman Dissertation Fellowship Award and was named an Emergent Scholar by the Kauffman Foundation.